The Sherman Act was introduced in 1890 to prevent monopolistic practices. It states in part:
"The Sherman Act outlaws all contracts, combinations, and conspiracies that unreasonably restrain interstate and foreign trade. This includes agreements among competitors to fix prices, rig bids, and allocate customers. The Sherman Act also makes it a crime to monopolize any part of interstate commerce. An unlawful monopoly exist when only one firm controls the market for a product or service, and it has obtained that market power, not because is product or service is superior to others, but by suppressing competition with anti-competitive conduct".
"In United States law. Certain tying arrangements are illegal in the United States under both the Sherman Antitrust Act, and Section 3 of the Clayton Act. A tying arrangement is defined as "an agreement by a party to sell one product but only on the condition that the buyer also purchases a different (or tied) product,..."
The Clayton Antitrust Act: was introduced in 1914, to prevent anticompetitive practices in their incipiency. It states in part:
Watchmaker Act did authorize a test of watchmakers ability until 1952. Then nine Supreme States court ruled about it and stated in part:
"Watchmaking Act is void in that it deprives defendant of inherent rights, privileges and immunities guaranteed by the State and Federal Constitutions, in numerous particulars, to wit: That it seek to deprive him of is right to liberty, the pursuit of happiness and the enjoyment of his own industry; to deprive his of his property without due process of law, and deprive him of his right to earn a livelihood in a legitimate field of business that of watchmaking and his right to contract in matter of purely private concern; that it violates the Bill of Rights of the Federal Constitution and seek to create a monopoly of business of watchmaking; that it grant to a certain class of citizens certain exclusive rights privileges and immunities, to the exclusion of others".
"There is no more excuse for requiring a watchmaker to pass test as to his technical qualification than for requiring a photographer to pass such a test.
The judgment of the trial is affirmed" State V. Wood 207 Okla."
Monopoly, is a systematic elimination of the competition, it places the consumers at the mercy of any engaged in monopoly.
The watch servicing market is provided to consumers solely by two groups:
The Swiss Brands and the Independent Watchmakers.
Monopoly is achieved by refusal to supply.
Refusal to supply is achieved by tying parts to egregious requirements.
Monopoly, Anti-Competition and the Laws:
Watch Servicing Competition
Keep Prices and Quality in Check